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Mastitis: causes, symptoms, prevention, and treatment

cow mastitis

Cause

Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland and udder tissue.

It usually occurs as an immune response to bacterial invasion of the teat canal by variety of bacterial sources present on the farm (commonly through bedding or contaminated teat dips), and can also occur as a result of chemical, mechanical, or thermal injury to the cow’s udder.

Mastitis is a multifactoral disease, closely related to the production system and environment that cows are kept in. Mastitis risk factors or disease determinants can be classified into three groups: host, pathogen and environmental determinants.

Symptoms

Subclinical: Few symptoms of subclinical mastitis appear, although it is present in most dairy herds. 

Somatic cell counts measure milk quality and can be used as an indicator of mastitis prevalence. 

Clinical mastitis: The most obvious symptoms of clinical mastitis in the udder are swelling, heat, hardness, redness or pain. 

Milk takes on a watery appearance, flakes, clots or pus is often present. 

A reduction in milk yields, increases in body temperature, lack of appetite, and a reduction in mobility due to the pain of a swollen udder are also common signs. 

Treatment

NSAID are widely used for the treatment of acute mastitis. Aspirin, flunixin meglumine, flurbiprofen, carprofen, ibuprofen, and ketoprofen have been studied as treatments for experimental coliform mastitis or endotoxin-induced mastitis. Orally administered aspirin should be used with caution in acute coliform mastitis because it may lead to severe rumen atony.

Prevention

  1. Hygienic teat management: which includes good housing management, effective teat preparation and disinfection for good milk hygiene, teat health and disease control.
  2. Prompt identification and treatment of clinical mastitis cases: including the use of the most appropriate treatment for the symptoms.
  3. Dry cow management and therapy: where cows are dried off abruptly and teats are cleaned scrupulously before dry cow antibiotics are administered, including the use of teat-end sealants if appropriate.
  4. Culling chronically affected cows: cows that become impossible to cure and represent a reservoir of infection for the whole herd.
  5. Regular testing and maintenance of the milking machine: with regular, recommended teatcup liner replacement and milking machine servicing and attention paid to items which must be checked on a daily, weekly or monthly basis.
  6. Good record keeping: of all aspects of mastitis treatment, dry cow therapy, milking machine servicing, Somatic Cell Counts and Bactoscan results, and clinical mastitis cases.

Diagnostics

It’s important to identify the pathogen causing the mastitis infection because different categories of pathogens require different mastitis management strategies. Without taking the time to determine a diagnosis, there is no way to know if a given antibiotic will work. However, once you know the pathogen, a dairy farmer can work with his or her veterinarian to develop a mastitis control program that fits your specific operation.

Consider your diagnostic options based on the needs of your dairy farm.

Overview of Testing Methods

TestIdentification of mastitic milkIdentification of pathogenFastReliabilityTest locationMilk sample type
California Mastitis TestFarmFresh milk
Somatic cell countLabFresh milk
ELISALabFresh, Frozen, Preserved
Bacterial cultureLabFresh
Multiplex PCR✓✓LabFresh, Frozen, Preserved
TestPrinciple
California Mastitis TestDetergent lyses white blood cells (leucocytes) in milk sample, resulting in viscosity of the fluid. This is a measure for severity of infection.
Somatic Cell CountCounting of leucocytes in a milk sample, either under a microscope or using automated cell counting systems (flow cytometry).
ELISADetects antibodies instead of pathogen; infection may no longer be active.
Bacterial cultureMilk sample is streaked on culture plates. Viable pathogens form colonies that are counted.
Multiplex PCRAmplification and detection of nucleic acid of mastitis-causing pathogens. Screening for multiple pathogens in one run. Indicates active infection. Pathogens do not need to be viable.

Submitting a clean milk sample to the laboratory is critical to a successful pathogen diagnosis. Follow these steps:

  1. Clean the udder from visible dirt
  2. Prevent kicking
  3. Wash your hands
  4. Clean the teat end with 3 clean swabs dipped in 70% alcohol disinfectant
    a. If the teat end is in poor condition,     more cleaning may be needed
  5. Open the milk tube corn and keep it clean in your palm
  6. Milk the sample keeping the tube in horizontal position
  7. Close the cork immediately
  8. Add markings like cow number, quarter and date on the tube
  9. Important: only one quarter to one tube
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Study finds machine learning could improve mastitis diagnosis in cows

mastitis

A new study published in Scientific Reports has found that machine learning has the potential to improve veterinary surgeons’s ability to diagnose herd mastitis origins accurately and reduce mastitis levels on dairy farms.

The study, which was led by Robert Hyde MRCVS from the School of Veterinary Medicine and Science at the University of Nottingham, aims to create an automated diagnostic support tool for the diagnosis of herd-level mastitis origin, an essential first step of the AHDB mastitis control plan. 

Mastitis data from 1,000 herds’ was inputted for several three-month periods. Machine learning algorithms were used to classify herd mastitis origin and compared with expert diagnosis by a specialist vet. 

The machine learning algorithms were able to achieve a classification accuracy of 98% for environmental vs contagious mastitis, and 78% accuracy was achieved for the classification of lactation vs dry period environmental mastitis when compared with expert veterinary diagnosis. 

Robert said: “Mastitis is a huge problem for dairy farmers, both economically and in welfare terms. In our study we have shown that machine learning algorithms can accurately diagnose the origin of this condition on dairy farms. A diagnostic tool of this kind has great potential in the industry to tackle this condition and to assist veterinary clinicians in making a rapid diagnosis of mastitis origin at herd level in order to promptly implement control measures for an extremely damaging disease in terms of animal health, productivity, welfare and antimicrobial use.”

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Fenbendazole – a reliable vet assistant

Fenbendazole
Fenbendazole

Most shelter workers have heard of the magic known as fenbendazole – is one of my favorite antiparasitic-and is a great drug for many reasons. It is generally considered a safe drug, toxicity occurs only in overdose 100x and exotic species. Fenbendazole is not systemically absorbed and more than 50% out of the animal feces. It should be administered for at least 3 days to kill parasites, as it has to stop cell division for some time before it becomes fatal to the parasite. 

Fenbendazole is labeled for use in cows, horses, pigs and dogs; but it has also been used in cats, sheep, birds, reptiles and fish. It is marked to kill roundworms, hookworms, whipworms and tapeworms some, but is not effective against the most common tapeworms, and therefore should not be relied upon to kill the tapes. increased use of fenbendazole in shelters is to kill whipworms, Giardia, and lungworms.

Fun fact: In the treatment of whipworm (Trichuris Vulpis) You may have heard of the rule of 3, try for three days, then repeat a course of three days in three weeks and again at three months. It is an easy treatment regimen and commonly recited, but did you know there is actually a scientific reason not to try this way know? Whipworm takes 3 months to mature from an egg to an adult. If you kill adults on day 1, then three weeks later there will be some immature adults who have matured, but you still have eggs and larvae of worms present. Wait up to 3 months and then try again, and do not bother with the treatment of three weeks.

Fenbendazole (carbamate 5-phenyl-thio-2-benzimidazole) has a broad spectrum of effects and cestocidal nematocides, is active against adult forms, larvae and eggs of gastrointestinal and lung and cestode parasites in animals. 
The mechanism of action of fenbendazole is the destruction of microtubules in cells of intestinal worms and disruption of energy processes, leading to the death of the parasites. 
When administered orally, fenbendazole is easily absorbed in the intestine and is distributed in organs and tissues of the animal; excreted from the body in unaltered form and as metabolites, mainly in the bile and urine partially in animals also varnished milk.

Young cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, dogs and cats are prescribed for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes in the case of: 
– nematodes; 
– cestodoses.

Enter the animals once, by force to the root of the tongue in the following doses. 
Young cattle monieziosis – 150 mg per 15 kg of animal body weight; with dictyocaulosis, hemonkhoze, Bunostomiasis, esophagostomosis, nematodirosis, ostertagiasis, habertiosis, cooperiosis and strongyloidiasis – 150 mg per 20 kg of animal weight. 
Sheep and goats with moniesiosis – 150 mg per 15 kg of animal body weight; if dictyocaulosis, hemonhose, bunostomiasis, esophagostomiasis, nematodirosis, ostertagiasis, trichostrongiloidosis, habertiosis, cooperiosis, strongyloidiasis – 150 mg per 30 kg of animal weight. 
Foals with parascariasis strongyles and – 150 mg per 15 kg of animal weight.
Piglet with ascariasis, esophagostomiasis, strongyloidiasis, trichocephalosis, metastrongyloidosis – 150 mg per 30 kg of animal weight. 
Adult dogs and cats toxocariasis, Toxascaris, ankilostomiasis, Uncinaria, dipilidiosis, taeniasis – 150 mg per 1.5 kg of animal weight. 
Puppies and kittens (more than 3 weeks old) with toxocariasis toxascaridoz, ancylostomiasis, uncinariosis, dipilidiosis and taeniasis 1 time/day for 3 days in a row in a single dose of 150 mg per 3 kg animal weight. 
A special diet and use laxatives before deworming is required.

Fenbendazole 222 Helmintazole
Fenbendazole 222 Helmintazole

Side effects

Side effects and complications in the use of fenbendazole in accordance with the indications and dosing regimen generally not observed. 
With increased individual sensitivity of the animal to fenbendazole and allergic reactions, drug use stops. 
Overdose symptoms in animals have not been identified.


Contraindications to the use of drug Fenbendazole

– Individual animal hypersensitivity to fenbendazole. 
Do not use the medicine: 
– animals exhausted and suffering from infectious diseases; 
– Puppies and kittens under 3 weeks of age.

Simultaneous use with bromsalanflucicides is not recommended, as in cattle with this interaction, there were cases of abortion and death in sheep. 
Slaughter of animals for meat is permitted no earlier than 14 days after deworming. In the case of the forced slaughter of a predetermined period, the meat can be used as food for carnivores or for the production of meat and bone. 
Milk of dairy animals to be used for food purposes within 3 days after worming is prohibited. The milk obtained earlier than the prescribed period may be used after heat treatment as animal feed. 
No smoking, drinking or eating food while working with the drug. At the end of the work, wash hands with soap and warm water.

You can buy a lot of different quality products with an active ingredient Fenbendazole at Homelabvet site.

The most popular products are Helmintazole 200, Helmintazole 250 Pro, Helmintazole 500, Helmintazole 222, Panacur, and many other products that you can check at the site.

Sincerely, Your Homelabvet.

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Factory farms are breeding grounds for pandemics – the Guardian

Illustration: Eleanor Shakespeare/The Guardian
Illustration: Eleanor Shakespeare/The Guardian

It can feel wrong, or simply impossible, to focus on anything other than getting through this most challenging moment. It is reasonable to argue that since lessons will not reduce our immediate suffering, we should learn them once we’re through this. But the vulnerability that makes the present so painful is exactly why some discussions cannot wait. The suffering we stand to reduce or increase by the threads of action that we begin to unwind now could be magnitudes of what we’re currently experiencing.

Imagine that while your country practiced social distancing, your neighboring country responded to Covid-19 by packing citizens into gymnasiums by the tens of thousands. Imagine if, in addition, they instituted genetic and pharmaceutical interventions that helped their citizens maintain productivity under such adverse conditions, even though this had the unfortunate side effect of devastating their immune systems. And to complete this dystopian vision, imagine if your neighbors simultaneously reduced their number of doctors tenfold. Such actions would radically increase death rates not only within their country but yours. Pathogens do not respect national boundaries. They are not Spanish or Chinese.

Pathogens do not respect species boundaries, either. Influenza and coronaviruses move fluidly between human and animal populations, just as they move fluidly between nations. When it comes to pandemics, there is not animal health and human health – not any more than there is Korean health and French health. Social distancing works only when everyone practices it, and “everyone” includes animals.

The meat that we eat today overwhelmingly comes from genetically uniform, immunocompromised, and regularly drugged animals lodged by the tens of thousands into buildings or stacked cages – no matter how the meat is labeled. We know this, and most of us would strongly prefer it be otherwise. But we would prefer a lot of things in the world that isn’t so and, for most of us, the future of animal farming is low on our list of priorities, especially now. It is understandable to be most concerned with oneself. The problem is, we aren’t doing a good job of being selfish.

We don’t yet know the full history of the emergence of Covid-19, the particular strain of coronavirus that now threatens us. But with recent pandemic virus threats from influenza viruses such as H1N1 (swine flu) or H5N1 (bird flu) there is no ambiguity: those viruses evolved on chicken and pig factory farms. Genetic analyses have shown that crucial components of H1N1 emerged from a virus circulating in North American pigs. But it is commercial poultry operations that appear to be the Silicon Valley of viral development.

It is on chicken factory farms that we have most frequently found viruses that have mutated from a form found only in animals into a form that harms humans (what scientists call “antigenic shift”). It is these “novel” viruses that our immune systems are unfamiliar with and that can prove most deadly.

Of 16 strains of novel influenza viruses currently identified by the CDC as “of special concern,” including H5N1, 11 come from viruses of the H5 or H7 type. In 2018 a group of scientists analyzed the 39 antigenic shifts, also called “conversion events,” that we know played a key role in the emergence of these, particularly dangerous strains. Their results prove that “all but two of these events were reported in commercial poultry production systems”.

Imagine if our military leaders told us that almost every terrorist in recent memory had spent time in the same training camp, but no politician would call for an investigation of the training camp. Imagine if we knew that those terrorists were developing weapons more destructive than any that has been used, or tested, in human history. This is our situation when it comes to pandemics and farming.

The United States CDC is the abbreviation for an agency whose name is actually the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We drop prevention from the acronym, which is innocent enough. But we also tend to drop serious discussion of prevention in favor of tactics for responding once pandemics hit. This is understandable – especially in the midst of a pandemic – but recklessly dangerous. We are preoccupied with the production of face masks, but we appear unconcerned with the farms that are producing pandemics. The world is burning and we are reaching for more fire extinguishers while gasoline soaks through the tinder at our feet.

To reduce the risk of pandemics for ourselves, our gaze needs to turn to the health of animals. In the case of wild animal populations, such as the bats that scientists have theorized as a probable origination point for Covid-19, the best solution seems to be to limit and regulate human interaction. Much has rightly been written on this and, slowly and unevenly, policies seem to be moving in the right direction. As it became established that a number of people contracted the virus after visiting a wet market in Wuhan, where the virus likely passed through humans from bats via an intermediate host, China shut down 19,000 wildlife-farming operations and banned meat from wild animals at wet markets.

In the case of farmed animals, though, the lack of public understanding has allowed unscrupulous corporations to move policy in exactly the wrong direction. Across the globe, corporations have succeeded in creating policies that use public resources to promote industrial farming. One study suggests that the public is providing $1m per minute in global farm subsidies, overwhelmingly used to prop up and expand the current broken model. The same $1m a minute that promotes factory farming also increases pandemic risk.

In the US, the death rate for Covid-19 has been less than 2% but had this been, say, H5N1 the death rate would be far higher – the CDC reports a 60% death rate. After a spike of H5N1 deaths in 2017, the virus’s spread subsided for reasons that remain unclear. Should we be relieved? Nancy Cox, who led CDC’s influenza operations for more than two decades, has emphasized: “We don’t know how the story’s going to end.” H5N1’s failure to reach pandemic proportions simply means we have a terrorist kicking around who is just one small viral mutation away from obtaining the equivalent of a nuclear arsenal.

The implications of a 1-2% death rate are all around us: half of the world is living under stay-at-home orders, children don’t go to school, hospitals are running out of life-saving equipment, we are facing a generational financial depression, and the funeral services that have traditionally allowed us at least to mourn together are being (rightfully) banned. Can we extrapolate the implications of a 60% death rate in our imaginations? That would be a 30-fold increase over our current situation. What if the next pandemic didn’t spare children? The death rate for children infected with H5N1 approaches 50%. How does it feel if you imagine one person you love a coin toss away from a horrible death? Try imagining if half of everyone you know who had the flu last year was now dying. If you have children, how many of them had the flu last year? Force yourself to imagine these things then ask yourself: how much would it be worth sacrificing now to avoid that happening?

This leads to the most pertinent question: What can we do? The link between factory farming and increasing pandemic risk is well established scientifically, but the political will to curtail that risk has, in the past, been absent. Now is the time to build that will. It really does matter if we talk about this, share our concerns with our friends, explain these issues to our children, wonder together about how we should eat differently, call on our political leaders, and support advocacy organizations fighting factory farming. Leaders are listening. Changing the most powerful industrial complex in the world – the factory farm – could not possibly be easy, but in this moment with these stakes, it is, maybe for the first time in our lifetimes, possible.

The fact that we know our food system is partly to blame can empower us. We know how to strike at the single greatest risk factor for pandemics. We know how to make ourselves and our families safer. The very uncertainty that unsettles us also reminds us that everything can change for the better, too. Thankfully Covid-19 seems to attack our children extremely rarely, and if we respond with sufficient wisdom, this time that is so marked by death will perhaps also be remembered by them as a turning point, a time of reckoning, quiet heroism and, as the month’s pass, renewal.

By: The Guardian

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Photography competition launched to document the six life stages of cats

iCatCare

The competition is open to amateur and professional photographers

Winning images will be used to help raise funds for iCatCare.

International Cat Care (iCatCare) has launched its annual photography competition to document the six life stages of cats.

From kitten through to super senior, judges are on the lookout for images that document behaviour not necessarily associated with a particular life stage – such as a super senior playing with toys. However, photographs are by no means limited to this

The competition is open to amateur and professional photographers, and the 12 winning images will be used on charity merchandise to raise funds for ICatCare. The overall winner will also receive a cash prize of £500.

More information about the competition, including deadlines and submission details, can be found at woobox.com/thoqqz

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China bans wildlife trade due to coronavirus outbreak

China bans wildlife trade

Kate Nustedt, our global wildlife director, said: “We commend China’s decision to impose a nationwide ban on wildlife trade in response to the deadly coronavirus outbreak. This ban will prevent the terrible suffering endured by millions upon millions of wild animals across the country.  

Crucially, it will also put a stop to the horrific conditions that serve as such a lethal hotbed of disease. We hope that this courageous step is made permanent and extended to all wildlife imports and exports, to help prevent any future crises of this nature.

Wild animals belong in the wild. This wildlife trade ban by China will help keep them there.”

Protecting wild animals and people

The deadly coronavirus is believed to be the result of the transmission of the virus from snakes to humans. Captive reptiles are well-documented as carriers of pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites, and viruses, that can be transferred to humans.

Snakes that are sold at markets, like those reported in Wuhan province, have suffered horrendous conditions before they get there. They’ve either been captured in the wild, stuffed together in bags or small cages for transportation to the market, or intensively bred in ranches and farms where they are kept in overcrowded containers.

Either way, these conditions are incubators for the transmission of disease and the evolution of more virulent pathogens.

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The Big Danger of the Varroa Mite

Varroa mites

One of the honey bee’s worst enemies is a tiny mite called Varroa destructor.

It is small and yet highly dangerous: the Varroa destructor mite is the most destructive enemy of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera). The parasite has now spread to almost all parts of the world – except for Australia – and is a serious threat to bee health. Without human intervention, a bee colony infested with mites will typically die off in these regions within three years. In addition to the threat posed by the Varroa mite itself, there is also the danger of secondary infection from various mite-vectored diseases, which have also become more widespread and additionally weaken the bee colonies. The parasitic Varroa mites – much like ticks – transmit diseases that often prove fatal to adult honey bees and their brood. Combating the mite is a difficult task for researchers. This is because – despite a number of promising ideas – they have not yet managed to develop simple and long-lasting treatments for fighting the bee parasite, nor have they yet managed to breed a Varroa-resistant strain of the Western honey bee.

The Expansion of the Varroa Mite

Varroa mites

The Varroa mite is originally native to Asia, where it was first discovered on the island of Java in Indonesia over 100 years ago. The mite initially preyed on the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana). But over thousands of years the bee successfully adapted its behavior to the parasite. The bees fend off the mites through their intensive cleaning habits in the hive, thus minimizing harm to the colony. When European settlers brought the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) to Asia, it also fell prey to the Varroa mite. Through these infested colonies the parasite was then introduced to Europe, where since the 1970s it has continued to spread. Recent genetic investigations have revealed that Varroa jacobsoni comprises 18 different genetic variants with two main groups: Varroa jacobsoni and Varroa destructor. Varroa destructor, the newly identified type, inflicts a great deal of harm in Europe, North America and elsewhere because the Western honey bee lacks sufficient defense mechanisms. Clearly, the equilibrium between Varroa destructor and the Western honey bee has not yet been established. The mite is now found in many areas of the world: it is common not only in China and Russia but also in Central Europe and North and South America. Even New Zealand and Hawaii reported cases of infestation in the first decade of the 21st century. Australia is the only part of the world where the mite has not yet spread, mainly as a result of intensive biosafety protocols at the borders.

The Biology of the Parasite

Varroa destructor literally means “destructive mite.” And although the parasite’s name more or less says it all, this tiny arachnid is not much larger than a millimeter and lacks hearing and sight. The body of the mite has four pairs of legs and piercing and sucking mouthparts. It uses the numerous sensory hairs all over its body as receptors to sense its environment. The Varroa mite’s flattened shape and the suckers on its feet enable it to optimally grip the bee’s body. It uses its mouthparts to pierce the bee’s exoskeleton and feed on its hemolymph, a circulatory fluid similar to blood.

The Reproduction Process of the Varroa

Varroa mites

The parasite preys on both adult honey bees and their brood. Varroa females can also survive outside the brood cells by attaching themselves to adult bees. However, the parasite only reproduces in the sealed brood cells of the honey bee. Shortly before the brood cells are capped, the Varroa female mites enter and crawl to the bottom of these cells – they protect themselves from the bees that tend to the brood by hiding under the larvae. Here they first immerse themselves in the liquid brood food. Once this is depleted, the Varroa mite feeds directly on the bee larvae. The parasite has strongly adapted to its host in terms of habitat and food.

THE VARROA POPULATION CAN DOUBLE EVERY FOUR WEEKS DURING THE BREEDING SEASON. IT CAN GROW FROM 50 MITES UP TO AROUND 3,200 MITES FROM THE BEGINNING OF FEBRUARY TO THE END OF AUGUST – WHICH ENABLES IT TO WIPE OUT EVEN A STRONG BEE COLONY OVER THE WINTER.

Transmission of Honey Bee Viruses

Varroa mites

Unlike its South-East Asian counterpart, the Western honey bee lacks sufficient defense mechanisms to fend off the non-native parasites. Infested honey bees are weakened as a result of the mites feeding on their hemolymph, which puts a strain on the bees’ immune system. This adversely affects their performance and shortens their life span. When the parasite feeds on the larva, it also transmits dangerous viruses directly into the bees’ hemolymph. The viruses can spread and harm the bees during their vulnerable development stage. Varroa increases the extent of the infection, because in the hemolymph, many viruses become deadly. Since there are no effective medicines to treat honey bee viruses, control of the Varroa mite to reduce the spread of viruses is essential. One such virus that is very widespread is the deformed wing virus (DWV), which can occur both in the brood and in adult bees. Often an infection does not produce any visible symptoms, but if the parasite transmits the virus to bee pupae, the young bees will develop deformed wings. These bees are unable to fly – and have a shortened life span compared to healthy bees. The Varroa mite also transmits other viruses such as the acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), which can infect adult bees and larvae alike. It is primarily found in fat body cells and in the bees’ salivary glands, but does not produce any typical signs of disease. The mite transmits ABPV directly into the bees’ hemolymph. From there it spreads to the vital organs: once in the brain, the virus induces behavioral disturbances and impairs orientation and development – all of which can have lethal effects on the bees. An infection with ABPV is particularly critical in the case of winter bees – it severely affects their ability to survive until spring.

THE VARROA MITE HARMS HONEY BEES IN VARIOUS WAYS: 
– IT WEAKENS THE BEE’S IMMUNE SYSTEM, CAUSING DISEASE PROGRESSION TO BE MORE ACUTE. 
– IT TRANSMITS VIRUSES THAT SPREAD QUICKLY WITHIN AND BETWEEN BEE COLONIES. 
– IT TRANSMITS VIRUSES DIRECTION INTO THE BEES’ HEMOLYMPH – PREVIOUSLY HARMLESS VIRUSES CAN THUS BECOME LETHAL.

Infection with the Varroa mite

The varroa mite spreads from hive to hive through contact with bees from other colonies, even to colonies located several miles away. During natural and assisted reproduction and robbing, the varroa mite travels on the back of the host bee to nearby hives, where it continues to multiply and spread.

Combatting the Varroa mite

When it comes to improving honey bee health, one of the main activities of beekeepers in Europe and North America is fending off the Varroa mite. In fact, the beekeepers’ most important task – particularly in late summer – is to minimize the level of colony infestation. This is crucial to ensure that sufficient numbers of bees survive the cold months of the year, thus enabling a strong colony to develop again in the spring.

Homelabvet has some tips on this.

There are some quality and effective medicines that you can use against Varroa mites:

Amitraz Plus strips (active ingredient – Amitraz and Thymol), AntiVaro strips (active ingredient – flumethrinum), Taktic Amitraz amp (active ingredient – Amitraz), Taktic Amitraz 25ml (active ingredient – Amitraz), Taktic Amitraz 50ml, Oxalic Acid, Flumetriy (active ingredient – flumethrinum), Amipol – T (active ingredient – Amitraz and Thymol) – this is an analog of Amitraz Plus strips.

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Starbucks, Subway and McDonald’s have made no animal welfare progress in eight years

Our Animal Protection Index (API), which ranks countries on their laws protecting animals, exposes the drastic need for global change

Holding countries to account

For the API, we assessed the animal welfare policies and legislation of 50 countries and ranked them from A (the highest score) to G.  

Shockingly, no country obtained an ‘A’ grade.

Some countries such as Morocco, Iran, Algeria, and Belarus were found to still be missing the basic legal framework needed to protect animals, and others do not formally recognize animal sentience in their existing legislation.

Sweden, United Kingdom, and Austria are rated with the highest scores, which is encouraging. More countries need to follow their lead. 

We are calling on all governments to immediately improve their animal welfare standards, not only for the benefit of animals but also to reduce the risk to public health.

Coronavirus and other concerns 

Severe animal welfare concerns from intensive farming, wildlife markets, and associated trade are all proven threats of disease outbreak, such as the most recent global epidemic, coronavirus. 

The API found that China, USA, Vietnam, Egypt, Azerbaijan, and Belarus need to do more to protect animals and people from the threat of zoonotic diseases.

This global threat will continue for as long as there is no effective legislation and preventative measures to control the emerging threat to animal and people’s health. 

Beyond public health, these systems which put us all at risk are causing immense suffering and cruelty to billions of animals every year. 

We need to build a better world for animals and people, but this won’t be possible until we stop treating animals as commodities.

Does the life of an animal mean nothing at all?

Last year we launched a film to highlight the many ways that we are failing to protect animals, asking the question: does the life of an animal mean nothing at all?

This is a question we need to ask governments lacking even the most basic animal welfare policies.

Materials by: WAP

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As COVID-19 keeps us apart, we will let the animals in

COVID-19

First, the eyes. I pressed mine to the opening of a little wooden house. The park ranger behind me cleared her throat.

“Yeah, watch out because they jum–”

The shiniest eyes bugged out, followed by a little furry body.

An Australian northern quoll is fast, spotty and critically endangered. Ginger Meggs landed deftly on my neck, scuttled across my shoulders and flattened his body against my wrist. Normal quoll behaviour?

“He’s feeling your pulse,” the ranger told me. She asked if maybe I was a calm sort of a person because he stayed there, belly warm against wrist, reading my blood. No one has ever described me as calm. In the human world, I’m excitable. But maybe in quoll time my big human heart is languid, lazy.

I was living alone in a caravan in the Northern Territory Wildlife Park at the time, researching my novel about communication between humans and animals, which begins, a little too presciently, with a new flu pandemic sweeping the country. Ginger Meggs was living alone in an enclosure. We paused there together, sharing my heartbeat.

But now, in the age of coronavirus, we all live alone. Or with a couple of people, max: our bubble buddies that we are happy to share germs with and no one else. While we keep apart to protect each other, there are still many moments of connection online. We can watch author Miranda July dance in her loungeroom. We can learn how to do the #BlackfellaHug on NITV, celebrate Jacinda Ardern or deplore Scott Morrison together on Facebook. But on the last day of on-site work, I can’t hug my crying colleagues. I recently moved from Melbourne to regional New Zealand and can’t get to my family across the deep Tasman Sea. And I can’t cope with the thousands who have already died from coronavirus.

In my riverside town, people tended to holler “hello” of a morning. This week, they’ve been inadvertently reduced to a whisper, as though even a greeting might imply inappropriate social contact. Our bodies move awkwardly in public – we don’t know how to communicate togetherness and solidarity while being so physically separate.

But then a woman appears on the river bend, easy limbed, with a dog keeping pace. She doesn’t break her stride when she sees me, she smiles; she’s not alone because she’s with a dog. And that dog wags, showing us how to be in the world.

“You know who this is all working out very nicely for?” author Ella Holcomb posted online, “PETS! VERY nicely indeed.”

Another Twitter user had to take their dog, Rolo, to the vet because he sprained his tail from excessive wagging at his suddenly homebound humans. (Rolo now has an Instagram account.)

Meanwhile my cousin jokes that, “While the rest of NZ was panic buying toilet paper and tins of tomatoes, we panic bought a dog!”

Dr Liz Walker, CEO of RSPCA Victoria, tells me over a stuttering Zoom connection that, “People with pets have higher self-esteem, are less likely to be depressed, and cope with grief and stress more effectively than non-pet owners. Especially now amid Covid-19, animals give us a sense of connectedness. No matter how bad it gets, animals make you feel safe, they make you feel happy and they’re always glad to see you.”

As countries close down and our home lives get smaller, I too “joke” with my partner that now is the exact right time to rescue a rabbit. I imagine long days of watching Cottontail chewing the furniture and pooing on the rug. And indeed, pets are generally good. For us. But – and if I didn’t think so much about this I’d have a Cottontail with me right now – what about the animals? How do they fare in this new world paradigm?

Dr Siobhan O’Sullivan, an animal welfare expert from UNSW, says that in times of crises, “we’re looking out for the humans, but animals are considered dispensable for some. There’s no doubt that you’re still vulnerable when you’re a nonhuman animal, even as a companion animal”. Some people, for instance, have asked vets to put pets to death because they’re concerned that they might carry the virus. New research that cat-to-cat transmission is possible not only increases fear, but makes a pet’s position as beloved family member increasingly tenuous. When it comes down to it, will we continue to protect our companions?

Walker agrees that while it’s natural to seek support from your companion animal, “it’s also important to prioritise downtime for everyone, including animals, so that when this ends – and it will – animals can cope with the changes in the household. Cats sleep for 18 hours and if you’re home when you were once out, you’re disturbing their sleep patterns. I would get cranky too!”

If we’re to eradicate coronavirus globally, isolation will drag into months; for some of us, the birds that we see hanging around outside the window could become our only non-screen living contact for the day. Maybe having more time to watch animals and observe that they have their own lives and needs, will give us a new appreciation for them. “That feeling of connectedness that you get from animals, and watching them do their thing … it’s extremely comforting. A lot of people get a whole lot of joy out of watching animals experience happiness and freedom,” Walker says. Can we stop, look around ourselves, realise that we aren’t the centre of the universe, and try to be a different way in the world?

Our Zoom chat is broken by a terrifying screech as the New Zealand government sends an emergency alert to every mobile phone in the country, marking the beginning of phase four: total isolation: “Follow the rules and STAY HOME. Act as if you have Covid-19. This will save lives”. For the next four weeks, I’m allowed to see people on the screen and my partner in person – no one else.

But I know that when I go for my sanctioned solitary river walk, I will still see life. Everywhere. Like a scene from the novel I just published, where a strange new flu enables us to understand other animals, my senses will be heightened to them. In the skies, crawling between rocks, hopping in the long grass and waddling at the end of a lead. From their perspective, my presence might mean very little – they have their own thing going on – but my heartbeat will slow, calm for a moment. It will mean the world.

• The Animals in that Country by Laura Jean McKay is out now through Scribein paperback or as eBook

The Guardian

Posted on

Researchers at Monash Institute found Ivermectin can kills COVID-19 cells

Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI)

Researchers at Monash University found Ivermectin can kills COVID-19 cells

  • The anti-parasite drug killed off the cells within two days and is widely available
  • Scientists are moving towards human trials but expect it to be at least a month

An anti-parasitic head lice drug – Ivermectin available around the world has been found to kill COVID-19 in the lab within 48 hours.

A Monash University-led study has shown a single dose of the drug Ivermectin could stop the SARS-CoV-2 virus growing in cell culture.

‘We found that even a single dose could essentially remove all viral RNA (effectively removed all genetic material of the virus) by 48 hours and that even at 24 hours there was a really significant reduction in it,’ Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute’s Dr Kylie Wagstaff said on Friday.

While it’s not known how Ivermectin works on the virus, the drug likely stops the virus dampening the host cells’ ability to clear it.

The next step is for scientists to determine the correct human dosage, to make sure the level used in vitro is safe for humans.

‘In times when we’re having a global pandemic and there isn’t an approved treatment, if we had a compound that was already available around the world then that might help people sooner, Dr Wagstaff said.

‘Realistically it’s going to be a while before a vaccine is broadly available.’

Scientists expect it could be at least a month before human trials.

Before Ivermectin can be used to combat coronavirus, funding is needed to get it to pre-clinical testing and clinical trials.

Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute

Ivermectin is an FDA-approved anti-parasitic drug also shown to be effective in vitro against viruses including HIV, dengue and influenza.

The study is the joint work of Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute (MBDI) and the Peter Doherty Institute of Infection and Immunity.

The study findings have been published in Antiviral Research. 

Ivermectin is used to treat head lice, scabies, and river blindness and is widely available.

You can buy different types of quality Ivermectin of different brands at Homelabvet, you can buy the drug in powder, in tablets, in oral or injectable solution.

Freelancer journalist makes a personal little research about how and from what countries people search about COVID-19 treatment, so the popular words of searches are farmaco ivermectin, ivermectin coronavirus australia, antiviral research, antiviral research ivermectin,ivermectina covid, monash university, monash university covid, ivermectin comprar, farmaco coronavirus, ivermectina covid 19, messaggero, ivermectina comprar, ivermectin, who makes ivermectin, ivermectin kills covid, ivermectin SARS cov 2, ivermectin y coronavirus, cura coronavirus, ivermectina compresse, ivermectina nombre comercial, biomedicine discovery institute and etc…

As we can see by this research language the most searches are made from Italy and US.

For example, if you need you can buy different products with this main ingredient:

Iverhelm 3,5% (Ivermectin) powder 100gr by Homelab, Iverhelm 3,5% (Ivermectin) powder 50gr by Homelab.

Iverhelm 3,5% is a very effective and quality anti-parasitic drug-like Helmintazole 200 or Helmintazole 222 but the main ingredient in Helmintazole 200 and Helmintazole 222 is Fenbendazole and the main ingredient of Iverhelm is Ivermectin.

Ivermectin Sterile Solution 1% 100ml for injection, Profiverm euro 1% Ivermectin 100 ml injectable, Profiverm euro 1% Ivermectin 50 ml injectable, Profiverm euro 1% Ivermectin 10 ml injectable, Profiverm Ivermectin 1% oral 1 Liter, Profiverm Ivermectin 1% oral 100ml, Profiverm Ivermectin 1% 10 ml, Profiverm Ivermectin 1% + Vitamin E, Brovermectin Ivermectin 1% injectable 100ml, Brovermectin Ivermectin 1% injectable 50ml, Brovermectin Ivermectin 1% injectable 20ml, Brovermectin Ivermectin 1% injectable 10ml.

iverhelm Ivermectin dewormer

Materials by: Daily Mail.