Demesol (dexamethasone) Solution for injection, 100 ml (3.38 oz)
Transparent colorless solution.
1 ml of the drug contains the active ingredient:
- Dexamethasone sodium phosphate – 2.63 mg.
Excipients: propylene glycol, highly purified water.
ATC vet classification code: QH02 Corticosteroids for systemic use. QH02AB02 Dexamethasone.
Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticosteroid that has pronounced anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, desensitizing and immunosuppressive effects. The anti-inflammatory effectiveness of dexamethasone is 30 times stronger than that of cortisone and 7-10 times that of prednisolone.
The mechanism of action of dexamethasone is based on blocking the release of inflammatory mediators by eosinophils, including prostaglandins that potentiate the inflammatory process, stimulating the biosynthesis of lipocortins that exhibit anti-edematous activity, reducing the number of mast cells that produce hyaluronic acid and reducing the permeability of capillaries. The immunosuppressive effect is due to the inhibition of the release of cytokines (interleukin 1,2, gamma-interferon) from lymphocytes and macrophages, suppression of the proliferation of lymphoid tissue and cellular immunity, violation of the induction of T-lymphocytes.
The main effect of dexamethasone on metabolism is associated with protein catabolism, increased gluconeogenesis in the liver, and decreased utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues.
The maximum concentration of dexamethasone in the blood serum after intravenous administration is reached after 5 minutes, and after intramuscular administration – after 60 minutes. After introduction into the joint or soft tissue (inflammation focus), the absorption is somewhat slower. Therapeutic concentration in blood serum is maintained for up to 48 hours. The bioavailability of dexamethasone when administered intramuscularly reaches 100%. Due to fat solubility, it freely penetrates into cells and intercellular space. It is biotransformed in the liver and partly in fibroblasts, which participate in the process of its metabolism, as well as directly in cells in the places of its action.
The half-life of dexamethasone is 24-72 hours. It is excreted in the form of metabolites, mainly with urine and bile. About 80% of the administered dexamethasone is eliminated by the kidneys in the form of glucuronide within 24 hours.
Treatment of animals in a complex of therapeutic measures for:
- traumatic myositis in horses in acute form;
- musculoskeletal inflammatory processes in dogs and cats (arthritis, bursitis, periarthritis, tendovaginitis, myositis);
- infectious diseases in the acute form of the course in combination with antibacterial therapy (detention of droppings in cows, catarrhal pneumonia in calves);
- allergic skin lesions (eczema and dermatitis in cats);
- metabolic disorders (ketosis in sows, sheep, postpartum toxemia in goats);
- gastroenteritis in dogs.
The drug can be used both for maintenance therapy and to achieve an immediate therapeutic effect.
Treatment with dexamethasone, like other hormonal drugs, must be carried out individually. The exact dosage for each animal is established by a specialist in veterinary medicine, taking into account the complexity of the course of the disease and the animal’s response to treatment.
Administer the drug intramuscularly, intra-articularly (according to the decision of a veterinarian, after partial removal of excess intra-articular fluid), subcutaneous administration is possible for dogs.
As an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic agent, the drug is used once in doses:
- dogs, cats: 0.25-0.5 ml of the drug per 5 kg of body weight (corresponding to 0.1-0.2 mg of dexamethasone per 1 kg of body weight);
- horses, cattle, pigs: 1.25-2.5 ml of the drug per 100 kg of body weight (corresponding to 2.5-5 mg of dexamethasone per 100 kg of body weight);
- calves, sheep: 0.2-0.4 ml of the drug per 10 kg of body weight (corresponding to 0.4-0.8 mg of dexamethasone per 10 kg of body weight)
- goats: 6 ml of the drug per 50 kg of body weight (corresponding to 12 mg of dexamethasone per 50 kg of body weight).
If necessary, the treatment can be repeated at 3-4-day intervals.
*Kilograms to Pounds conversion table
|Kilograms (kg)||Pounds (lb)||Pounds+Ounces
|0.1 kg||0.220 lb||0 lb 3.527 oz|
|1 kg||2.205 lb||2 lb 3.274 oz|
|5 kg||11.023 lb||11 lb 0.370 oz|
|10 kg||22.046 lb||22 lb 0.740 oz|
Increased individual sensitivity of animals to the components of the drug.
Do not use in late pregnancy, in large species of animals – cows, mares – it can lead to premature birth or abortion.
Do not use in animals with diabetes, chronic nephritis, kidney and heart failure, osteoporosis, hypercorticism, except in emergency cases.
Do not use for viral infections in the viremia phase.
Do not use simultaneously with other glucocorticosteroids or immunobiological drugs.
Do not use in horses to treat laminitis.
Do not use in horses intended for slaughter and human consumption.
Animals receiving corticosteroids should be monitored.
Due to the anti-inflammatory effect of corticosteroids, signs of infection may be hidden, which may lead to incorrect treatment.
Corticosteroids can weaken the body’s resistance or increase the impact of an infection on the body.
If a microbial infection is suspected or present, treatment should be carried out together with antimicrobial therapy.
With proper use and dosage, side effects are usually not observed.
A side effect with symptoms of hypocorticism may occur mainly during or after long-term treatment, with a sudden termination of treatment (atrophy of the adrenal cortex and a decrease in the synthesis of endogenous corticosteroids).
With long-term therapy, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, hyperglycemia, pancreatitis, changes in body weight, etc. are possible. In some cases, polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia are possible.
After long-term therapy, a gradual dose reduction is recommended before discontinuing the drug.
In ruminants, dexamethasone can cause a decrease in milk production, the occurrence of skin reactions and hemorrhages. When used in the last trimester of pregnancy, the drug can cause premature birth with the birth of a dead fetus.
Intra-articular injections can cause degenerative changes in cartilage tissue, changes in the density of synovial fluid, the appearance of cracks, long-term healing of fractures, and the danger of excessive loading of incompletely healed joints.
Use during pregnancy, lactation
Do not use in the last trimester of pregnancy, due to the fact that the drug can cause premature birth or abortion.
When used during lactation, a slight decrease in milk productivity is possible.
Interaction with other means and other forms of interaction
Interaction with barbiturates can increase the metabolism of glucocorticosteroids and lead to a decrease in blood pressure.
Use together with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may increase the risk of stomach or intestinal ulcers.
Glucocorticosteroids are insulin antagonists.
An animal treated with a corticosteroid should not be vaccinated.
Overdose (symptoms, emergency measures, antidotes)
In case of an overdose, which usually occurs only after long-term use of increased doses of the drug, it is possible to increase the adverse reactions indicated in the Side effect section. There is no specific antidote. Immediate cessation of administration of the drug and timely prescribed symptomatic treatment contribute to the rapid elimination of clinical manifestations of overdose.
Withdrawal period (withdrawal period)
Slaughter of animals for meat is allowed 8 days (cattle, sheep, goats) and 3 days (pigs) after the last use of the drug. People are allowed to use milk for food 3 days after the last use of the drug.
The meat and milk received before the specified deadline are disposed of or fed to unproductive animals, depending on the opinion of the veterinary medicine doctor.
Dark glass bottles of 10, 50 and 100 ml.
Dry, dark place inaccessible to children at temperatures from 4 to 25 °C.
2 years. The shelf life after the first opening (selection) of the bottle is 28 days, provided that it is sterilely selected and stored in a hermetically sealed container.
For use in veterinary medicine!